Pigeonbasics Forum: Health care regime - Pigeonbasics Forum

Jump to content

Page 1 of 1
  • You cannot start a new topic
  • You cannot reply to this topic

Health care regime Rate Topic: -----

#1 GuestCS_*

  • Group: Guests

Posted 18 November 2007 - 09:38 AM

HEALTH CARE REGIMEN

  

PREPARED BY THE ASSOCIATION OF PIGEON VETERINARIANS



There are two approaches to preventive health care that a fancier can use. The best is to make use of diagnostic laboratory procedures before administering any medications. Unfortunately, due to financial limitations or lack of laboratory facilities and personnel familiar with pigeon diseases, diagnostics may not be used. Two programs, therefore, are outlined here.

1) PREVENTIVE HEALTH CARE WITH DIAGNOSTICS (work done for you by a veterinarian and/or diagnostic laboratory)
Breeders done 4-6 weeks before pairing, other birds done 6-8 weeks prior to racing or showing.

Vaccination :

A. Paramyxovirus - use oil emulsion vaccine approved for pigeons

B. Paratyphoid

C. Pox - Young birds.

Vaccinate for pox about 8 weeks before races begin. Paramyxovirus or paratyphoid may also be used at this time. Where paramyxovirus or paratyphoid is endemic, youngsters may receive their first vaccination soon after weaning (but not before 28 days of age). Give boosters at recommended times after initial inoculation.

Fecal (droppings) examination -- direct smear and flotation.

A. Helminths ( worms) -- those species commonly found include: Ascarids (roundworms), Capillaria (hairworms), Tetrameres and Dispharynx (stomach worms or stomach-wall worms), Aporina (tapeworms), and Ornithostrongylus (strongylids or strongyle worms).

Treatments :

1. Ivermectin (cattle wormer-trade name Ivomec) - diluted 1:9 with propylene glycol and dosed at 0.l cc per bird orally (1-2 drops). Effective against all worms except tapeworms. Dosage may need to be increased up to .1 cc of straight Ivomec for stomach worms. Blood sucking lice and mites may also be killed while there is a blood level of ivermectin in the pigeon.

2. Mebendazole (dog wormer-trade name Telmintic) - dosed at 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon of powder per gallon of drinking water for 3-5 days, (do a repeat treatment in 21 days where worms are diagnosed). Use the higher dose when treating stomach-wall worms and during cool weather when water consumption is down. Feather abnormalities and infertile eggs have been reported when using ten times the recommended dose. For this reason avoid using Telmintic during the moult and during egg laying.

3. Levamisole (one trade name is Tramisol) - dosed at 1000 to 1500 mg per gallon for one or two days. Use liquid or soluble powder as the tablets do not dissolve readily. Levamisole is sometimes poorly effective against Capillaria and will not eliminate stomach worms or tapeworms. Levamisole may also cause vomiting.

4. Praziquantel (trade name Droncit) - use 1/4 of a cat tablet per average sized pigeon. Effective against tapeworms only.

B . Coccidia - if present in significant numbers treat with:

1. Sulfachlorpyridazine (trade name Vetisulid) powder dosed at 2/3 to ¾ teaspoon per gallon of drinking water for 3 to 5 days.

2. Amprolium (trade name Corid or Amprol) powder dosed at 1 tsp per gallon of drinking water for 3 to 5 days.

NOTE: Follow either of these treatments with 1-2 days of vitamins.

3. Clazoril a European drug, not yet available here, may eventually be the drug of choice. Dosed at 1 tablet per pigeon.

4. Nitrofurazone - less effective and not recommended usually.

Pharyngeal and crop smears (immediate, direct saline smear).

For Trichomonas (Canker organisms):
Treatments :

A. Emtryl - dosed at 3/4 teaspoonful per 4 liters for 5 to 7 days. Emtryl has been taken off the market and the supply is limited, but is an excellent drug. Toxic in overdose.

B. Ipropan - dosed at 1/4 teaspoon per gallon for 3 to 5 days. More expensive but works well. This may also be withdrawn from market.

C. Spartrix (Carnidazole) . Pigeons dosed at one tablet per bird.

D. Flagyl(Metronidazole) - a prescription drug - tablets have to be finely crushed and mixed in water so that each pigeon receives the correct dosage (3-6 days). See formulary.

  

IV. Fecal (droppings) culture - either of individual birds, or of a composite specimen from a compartment. The main pathogens are Gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella species or E. coli . E. coli may be present normally, but when it is cultured in large numbers and/or in pure culture it is considered a potential pathogen (disease-producer). If a pathogen is cultured, an antibiotic sensitivity (antibiogram) should be performed to determine the appropriate antibiotics). If indicated, Amoxicillin trihydrate is a good drug of choice since it is bactericidal (kills bacteria). It is dosed at 25-50 mg per pigeon per day for two weeks. Vetisulid is often very effective against E. coli as is Apralan (apramycin). The latter is not absorbed from the gut so it may curb an outbreak, but will not be effective against a systemic infection (an infection spread by the bloodstream to many tissues).

V. Blood smears for Haemoproteus and Plasmodium species (stained with Wright's stain).

In areas where these blood parasites are a problem, routine use of antimalarials may be indicated to keep it suppressed. To actually affect a permanent cure, a pigeon reportedly must receive 10 mg of Atabrine daily for 30 days. The routine use of antimalarials in endemic areas involves medicating the drinking water with Atabrine (1-2 tab/gal). Primagine (1 tab/gal), or Aralen (1 tab/gal) for 1-2 days each week during the race season.

VI. Routine control of external parasites: Since water preparations do not penetrate the feathers well it is better to use an insecticidal dust. Dust must be applied carefully and thoroughly to be most effective. Where available, ‘Chinese chalk’ is useful. It has been banned because it contains arsenic but may be obtained from some oriental markets.

A. Feather lice and mites can be controlled by regular dusting with Permethrin, Malathion, or Carbaryl, Chinese chalk.

B. Pigeon flies (spread Haemoproteus) are more difficult but Permethrin dust applied every 2-4 weeks or Malathion dust applied weekly are effective.

C. Mosquitoes (spread Plasmodium and Pox) are a real challenge. Insecticidal strips hung in the loft are helpful. The amount to use varies greatly with size of loft and amount of ventilation, and is at best guesswork.

D. Ivermectin applied as a spray mixed fresh using 1 cc per quart of water has been shown to be fairly effective against lice but has failed to keep pigeon flies off.

E. Judicious use of insecticides in the loft (including nests) is often necessary to break the life cycle of some of these parasites.

  

VII. Culture for Mycoplasmosis or Chlamydiosis when indicated.

Treatment - See Formulary :

Erythromycin (Gallimyicn) 25-30 mg per pigeon daily or Tylosin (Tylan) 50 mg per pigeon daily or Lincomycin (Lincocin) at 35-50 mg per pigeon daily for Mycoplasmosis. Treat for 1-2 weeks.

Tetracyclines (without grit/oyster shell) at 50 mg per pigeon daily for 2-4 weeks for Chlamydiosis. This may be effective against Mycoplasma also.

Doxycycline hyclate tabs at 25 mg/lb twice daily for 5-7 days then once daily for up to 4 weeks.

Nasal flushes with appropriate antibiotic (antibiogram) for chronic sinusitis which may be primary or secondary.

2) PREVENTIVE HEALTH PLAN NOT USING DIAGNOSTICS
Refer to previous plan for specifics. Breeders done 4-6 weeks before pairing. Other birds done 6-8 weeks prior to racing or showing.

I. Vaccinations :

A. Paramyxovirus

B. Paratyphoid

C. Pox

wait one week..........

II. Worming:

A. Ivermectin (Ivomec)

B. Mebendazole (Telmintic)

C. Levamisole (Tramisol)

Two days of vitamins.............

wait 2-3 days................

III. Coccidiosis treatment

A. Sulfachlorpyridazine (Vetisulid)

B. Amprolium (Coprid or Amprol)

C. Clazoril (when available)

Two days of vitamins………wait 2-3 days……….

IV. Trichomoniasis (canker) treatment.Use ONE of the following:

Emtryl – now banned in North America and may not be available.

Ipropan
Spartrix

Flagyl – now the best choice available. It is a prescription item.
Ridsol - in short supply and may not be available.
If you flock treat, use one drug the first time, and another drug the next time to try to avoid the development of resistance by the canker organism. Switch back and forth.

Two days of vitamins.............

wait 2-3 days ..................

Note: Telmintic can be dosed at the same time as Emtryl and Amprolium or Vetasulid, thus treating worms, coccidia and canker together. Follow with two days of vitamins. Use caution when mixing other medications not proven compatible, as toxicities may develop in some cases of drug combinations.

V. Preventive treatment for paratyphoid or E. coli with antibiotics is medically unsound, but may have benefit in some cases. Amoxicillin, Nitrofurazone, Vetisulid, or Apralan are common drug choices.

Preventive treatment for, or periodic treatment for respiratory infections (Chlamydia and Mycoplasma) may be beneficial only if there is some evidence of respiratory disease. Erythromycin (Gallimycin), Tylosin (Tylan), Lincomycin (Lincocin), and Tetracycline drugs are commonly used.

Note: Using any antibiotic blindly is a hit or miss proposition and way actually predispose to infection with a pathogen because of disturbing the normal bacteria. Indiscriminate or incorrect use of antibiotics may also contribute to the development of resistant strains and resistant forms of bacteria.

Steps I through V may be repeated after racing/showing/breeding.

After any antibiotic treatment it is a good idea to put birds on a day or two of a multi-vitamin mix.

It is also highly important to get the birds on a good probiotic (friendly bacteria) after any antibiotic treatment to help restore normal protective bacteria to the digestive tract .

Husbandry and Loft Management
Loft design should vary with the climatic conditions of a given locale, but lofts should be build with foresight, especially concerning ease of cleaning. Raised floors (slatted or wire) or open bottom wire floors have significant merit. Concrete floors are easy to clean and disinfect, but may hold moisture at times.

Most parasite eggs and oocysts (coccidia) must undergo development in the environment before becoming infective to the next host. Warm and wet environmental conditions enhance this development. Therefore, regular (preferably daily) scraping and a dry loft are of utmost importance to prevent spread within the loft. A clean loft means healthier birds. Crowding is the fancier's worst enemy. Crowded birds never have the general good health of uncrowded birds, neither will they perform to their potential in races.

Disease Control

Quarantine new birds. These are very often the source of disease in the loft. The same goes for strays. Ideally, new birds should be quarantined for 30 to 60 days, sick birds should be removed from general flock and quarantined in cages that can be disinfected between cases.

Don't guess - get positive answers to problems before random treatments are used. Most veterinarians can help even if they have no specific knowledge of pigeon diseases. They can at least direct you to labs or veterinarians who specialize in birds so that sick or dead birds can be examined for diagnostic purposes. The cost is usually very reasonable. There are a number of veterinarians with an interest in avian medicine and some specifically interested in pigeon medicine. They are trying to provide a service to you. Don't be too proud to ask for help when you need it. Compare veterinary costs against the cost of the $1000+ birds you just bought!!

Gordon Chalmer


#2 User is offline   Merlin 

  • Veteran of the Loft!
  • PipPipPipPipPipPip
  • Group: Members
  • Posts: 1,103
  • Joined: 12-October 07

Posted 21 November 2007 - 08:12 AM


    Is Copper Sulphate safe in bath water at the rate of 1/2 tea spoon to two gallons of water,its very good at keeping lice/and quill lice off birds,but could/would it have any effect when taken as birds when bathing tend on occassions to drink.
                                       Merlin

#3 User is offline   Tony C 

  • High Ranking
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • Group: Sprint Specialist
  • Posts: 6,882
  • Joined: 31-December 05
  • LocationDagenham Essex
  • Club:Dagenham Trades Hall

Posted 21 November 2007 - 11:29 AM

Merlin said:

    Is Copper Sulphate safe in bath water at the rate of 1/2 tea spoon to two gallons of water,its very good at keeping lice/and quill lice off birds,but could/would it have any effect when taken as birds when bathing tend on occassions to drink.
                                       Merlin


At that dosage it wouldn't hurt them, on the contrary it actually helps keep them clear of Candida if they do drink it. I put vinegar in their bath water, keeps the lice away just as good.


Brits ahoy
Posted Image
I started out with nothing and still have most of it left
Tony Calverley


#4 User is offline   chickadee 

  • Veteran of the Loft!
  • PipPipPipPipPipPip
  • Group: Members
  • Posts: 4,005
  • Joined: 14-March 07

Posted 21 November 2007 - 14:57 PM

Tony C said:

At that dosage it wouldn't hurt them, on the contrary it actually helps keep them clear of Candida if they do drink it. I put vinegar in their bath water, keeps the lice away just as good.


Is that ordinary vinegar or cider vinegar, and how much?
www.doves-above.com DOVEScot Jnr's new business adventure

;D learning about birds and people  ;D

#5 User is offline   Tony C 

  • High Ranking
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • Group: Sprint Specialist
  • Posts: 6,882
  • Joined: 31-December 05
  • LocationDagenham Essex
  • Club:Dagenham Trades Hall

Posted 21 November 2007 - 17:27 PM

chickadee said:

Is that ordinary vinegar or cider vinegar, and how much?


Ordinary vinegar. As for the amount well its pretty scientific lol 1 glug to 2 gallons(or there about) :) I'd guess about 20mls to a gallon.
Brits ahoy
Posted Image
I started out with nothing and still have most of it left
Tony Calverley


#6 User is online   THE FIFER 

  • ADMIN
  • Icon
  • Group: Administrators
  • Posts: 38,085
  • Joined: 7-August 05
  • LocationFIFE
  • Club:Leven HS

Posted 24 September 2012 - 13:17 PM

Posted Image
THE FIFER (ADMIN)

forum@pigeonbasics.com




�� NOTICE

DELEGATES ARE MESSENGERS

Page 1 of 1
  • You cannot start a new topic
  • You cannot reply to this topic


  • Advert: B.Leefe & Sons
  • Advert: Apex Garden Buildings
  • Advert: Racing Pigeon Supplies
  • Advert: Solway Feeders